Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de Las Vegas, an ongoing project, explores a community in transition and delves into the unique historical context of Las Vegas, New Mexico. 70% of the people in this city still speak the Castilian Spanish that has been in New Mexico since the late 1500s. The Hispano people are descendants of the Spanish, but they are also descendants of indigenous peoples who were enslaved, converted or stolen from their communities. Once the economic and political center of New Mexico, Las Vegas has been in economic decline for decades. Its population is shrinking as young people move away to find work. The Spanish that has helped to keep Hispano identity strong is being spoken and taught less in homes and schools. The goal of this project is to document this period in Las Vegas’ history. Las Vegans who grew up connected to their centuries-old Hispano identity are ageing, and a younger generation of Las Vegans who no longer speak Spanish have little incentive to stay. Las Vegas is in the middle of a transition that will reshape its cultural landscape. This is a story that demonstrates the diverse nature of American history at a time when it is critical to show that the narrative on which all xenophobia is based is false. Borders have shifted around the inhabitants of this community. They are Americans today, but the story of how this happened does not fit into the common narrative of how America came to be and who its citizens are.